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Grammar

Pluralia Tantum and Singularia Tantum

Pluralia Tantum

Some nouns have only plural forms even though they denote one but also more things and persons. They include especially names of objects consisting of two identical parts (nůžky, kleště, brýle), some common things (dveře, kamna), pair body organs (plíce) and body parts (záda), diseases (spalničky, neštovice), holidays (Vánoce, Velikonoce) and others. They are declined only in plural according to corresponding patterns, e.g.:

Masculine: šachy, peníze
Feminine: kalhoty, plavky, nůžky, spalničky, narozeniny, noviny; housle, dveře
Neuter: ústa, játra, záda, antibiotika

Singularia Tantum

Some nouns have only their singular forms. Therefore, they are declined in singular according to common patterns. They can be divided depending on what they express:

  • collective wholes: cukroví, námořnictvo
  • actions: čtení, psaní, učení, plavání
  • substance or material: uhlí, listí, kamení
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