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Grammar

The vocative singular (5th case singular) - standard Czech

Ma - masculine animate
Mi - masculine inanimate
F - feminine
N - neuter
similar forms of the pronouns and the adjectives
Case1 Pronouns2 Adjectives3 Nouns4
Context Example kdo, co ten, ta, to můj, moje -ý adjectives (hard)
The nominative singular ending in
-í adjectives (soft)
The nominative singular ending in
1st declension group
The nominative singular ending in konsonant/konsonant without a "háček" (hook)*, -a, -o
2nd declension group**
The nominative singular ending in a consonant with a "háček" (hook), -e/-ě***, -c, -j, -tel, -el, -ev
3rd declension group
The nominative singular ending in -a, -st,
vocative
Volám:
- - můj
moje/má
nový
nová
moderní
moderní
studente! Adame!/Marku!
studentko! Evo!
muži! Tomáši!
kolegyně! Marie!
kolego!
Carmen!
Attention:
  1. A vocative form can be made for all nouns but is usually used only for the names of people or animals.
  2. The masculine animate nouns ending in -h, -ch, -k and -g have the ending -u (Marek – Marku!) in the vocative singular.
  3. Some nouns have stem alternations in their declined forms (pes – pse! Marek – Marku!).
  4. Some masculine names ending in -y or -i/-í are declined as the adjective moderní (Jiří – Jiří!, Johnny – Jonny!). Feminine names ending in -y, -i, -o or a consonant are not declined (Ivy – Ivy!, Maiako – Maiako!, Carmen – Carmen!).

* Some masculine animate nouns (often the proper names) and exceptionally also masculine inanimate nouns ending in -l, -s, -z, -x (e.g. král, cíl, Klaus, Francouz, Felix) belong to the 2nd declension group and they are declined like the paradigm muž/počítač.

** Several masculine nouns ending in -tel, -c (e.g. hotel, kostel, tác) belong to the 1st declension group. Some feminine nouns ending in a consonant belong to the 3rd declension group (very often ending in -ost, -st, see the paradigm místnost). But: some feminine nouns (e.g. věc, řeč) are declined like místnost and others (e.g. moc, pomoc, nemoc, noc, myš, smrt, sůl, paměť, zeď, odpověď, loď) vary between the paradigms kancelář and místnost.

*** A small group of neuter nouns ending in -e/-ě which denote some animals (zvíře, prase, kuře...) and food (rajče) has a special declension, e.g. in the vocative singular kuře. Few masculine animate nouns ending in -e (e.g. soudce) are declined except for the vocative singular like the paradigm muž, e.g. in the vocative singular soudce!.

Do you find the paradigm chart complicated? Try to remember model sentences for the nouns in the vocative singular:
Volám: Adame!/Marku! Tomáši!
Volám: Evo! Marie!

You can find the summarizing chart of all cases in singular with more explanations here.

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